The India branch of Amnesty International closed its office after being accused of "sedition" by Hindu fundamentalists over its reports on human rights abuses in Kashmir.
Inter-caste violence and protests mount in India as corporate interests seize untitled peasant lands, increasing economic pressure on rural communities.
The Kashmir-based United Jihad Council claimed responsibility for a deadly attack on the Indian air force base at Pathankot, near the border with Pakistan.
In an attack claimed by ISIS, gunmen on motorcycles stopped a commuter bus carrying Ismaili Muslims in Karachi, boarded it and opened fire on the passengers, killing at least 45.
Renewed fighting between India and Pakistan across the Line of Control in Kashmir follows devastating floods in the divided region, which have deepend local anger.
Ayman al-Zawahri's announcement of "al-Qaeda in the Indian Subcontinent" comes amid growing attacks on Muslims in Northeast India as well as Burma and Bangladesh.
Srinagar and other towns in India-administrated Jammu and Kashmir are under curfew following unrest over the killing of four protesters by the Border Security Forces.
India is protesting what it calls an incursion by some 30 Chinese troops from across the Line of Control in the Himalayas, while Tibetans charge stepped up repression.
A new pipeline that would link Iran to China via Pakistan, bypassing the strategic Strait of Hormuz, would pass through the insurgent regions of Baluchistan, Kashmir and Xinjiang.
A Kashmiri militant who received the death penalty for the 2001 attack on India's parliament was executed after India's president turned down his plea for clemency.